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Jeremy Howard ist ein US-amerikanischer Schauspieler. Jeremy Howard (* Juni in Burbank, Kalifornien) ist ein US-amerikanischer Schauspieler. Filmografie (Auswahl)[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Datei:Jeremy mattekarlsson.se aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Datei; Dateiversionen; Dateiverwendung. Entdecke alle Serien und Filme von Jeremy Howard. Von den Anfängen seiner Karriere bis zu geplanten Projekten. Jeremy Howard ist ein amerikanischer Schauspieler. Entdecke seine Biographie, Details seiner 21 Karriere-Jahre und alle News.
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People should be told to wash their mask when they get home, to minimize the chance that they get infected through an infected surface.
A mask covers the mouth and nose, making it much harder to accidentally touch them. People should be encouraged to avoid touching their mouth and nose regardless of whether or not they are wearing a mask.
Masks can be made by cutting the ends off a sock, stapling rubber bands to a piece of kitchen towel, cutting the arms of a t-shirt, folding a handkerchief over hair-ties or rubber bands, by using a scarf or bandana, and so forth.
There is no evidence to suggest that any of these masks are not effective at blocking droplets from an infected person. In regions that have mandated mask usage, most people are wearing DIY masks, not medical masks.
However, it has been pushed heavily though social media and medical mailing lists. No references or data are provided to back up this claim.
Looking at the actual data, however, shows that it supports the opposite conclusion - that masks may have been critical in controlling the Hubei outbreak.
The next day, the government started requiring masks in public. Wuhan had their peak number of cases on Feb 4, and since then case numbers have been decreasing.
Clearly, the evidence here does not support the conclusion that masks were ineffective. This statement is made without any citations.
The article actually presents no studies that provide evidence that cloth masks will be ineffective at preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
This is incorrect. Respirators can not ensure protection. In fact, nothing can ensure protection. However, it would be accurate to say that respirators provide the best practical protection for frontline workers.
Unfortunately, there is a shortage of respirators at present, which is why people are looking at what other options might be useful, rather than making idealistic gestures about would is best.
This point is mentioned in the article. Furthermore, many respirators have a valve which makes them useless for source control, and therefore greatly reduces their effectiveness at reducing transmission.
However, this is only accurate when a mask is used for protecting the wearer PPE rather than those around the wearer source control. Focusing instead on those claims with references, various studies are presented which look at how much salt and aerosol particles flow through various fabrics at various pressures and particle sizes.
The same is true of the studies of fit that are presented. The claims are entirely unrelated to efficacy for source control, since droplets do not evaporate into droplet nuclei before hitting the cloth in the mask, due to the humid environment created by the mask.
Indeed, their own research here shows that they do not know whether cloth masks will be effective. However, none of the references make this claim or show data to support this contention.
Their reference 22, for instance, is a meta analysis in which section 3. However, most of the studies were underpowered and were unable to distinguish between large, small, or negative protection.
Reference 25 does not relate to household use, despite their use of it as a reference here. However, COVID is not rhinovirus, and unlike rhinovirus is actually filtered effectively with cloth.
In addition, the study referenced did not just compare surgical masks with cloth masks, but compared a regular supply of 2 new medical masks per day, with just 5 masks for a 4 week period.
This is clearly inappropriate in the hot, busy, healthcare setting that was studied here. Mandating universal mask wearing, rather than just recommending mask use, may have additional benefits such as reducing stigma.
From our paper section B. For many infectious diseases, including, for example, tuberculosis, health authorities recommend masks only for those infected or people who are taking care of someone infected.
However, research shows that many sick people are reluctant to wear a mask if it identifies them as sick, and thus end up not wearing them at all in an effort to avoid the stigma of illness 60, Many health authorities have recommended wearing masks for COVID only if people are sick; however, reports of people wearing masks being attacked, shunned and stigmatized have already been observed Further, in many countries, minorities suffer additional stigma and assumptions of criminality In that vein, black people in the United States have reported that they were reluctant to wear masks in public during this pandemic for fear of being mistaken as criminals 67, Many Western regions have now mandated mask wearing in many public places, including many parts of the USA and many countries in Europe.
There is no sign that Westerners are unable or unwilling to wear masks. Confused about mask wearing?
But not as complicated as some people imply. The closer the dominos or mousetraps , the more chaos gets generated. Every infectious disease has a transmission rate R0.
A disease with an R0 of 1. A disease whose R0 is less than 1. The strain of flu that caused the pandemic had an R0 of 1.
When you speak, tiny micro droplets are ejected from your mouth. Only the very largest droplets end up surviving more than 0.
Debates about the effectiveness of masks often assume that the purpose of the mask is to protect the wearer, since this is what all doctors learn about in medical school.
Cloth masks are relatively poor though not entirely ineffective at this. But cloth masks, worn by an infected person are highly effective at protecting the people around them.
And it is source control that matters in the debate about whether the public should wear masks.
We disagree with their conclusion. Mathematical modeling by our team, supported by other research Yan et al. The blue area of the graph indicates an R0 below 1.
Even if masks block a much lower proportion of viral particles, the disease could still be contained — but only if most or all people wear masks.
How do you get all or most people to wear masks? Well, you can educate them and try to persuade them, but a more effective approach is to require them to wear a mask, either in specific settings such as public transportation or grocery stores or even at all times outside the home.
Research on vaccination Bradford and Mandich shows that jurisdictions which set a higher bar for vaccine exemptions have higher vaccination rates.
The same approach is now being used to increase mask wearing compliance, and early results Leffler et al. RCTs of mask-wearing to prevent other diseases such as influenza or tuberculosis have tended to show a small effect which in many studies was not statistically significant.
A natural experiment is when we study something that is really happening — for example when a country introduces a policy of wearing masks.
South Korea, for example, had rapid community spread that tracked the trajectory in Italy in the initial weeks. Then, in late February , the government provided a regular supply of masks to every citizen.
From that point, everything changed. In some countries that introduced mask-wearing, other measures such as strict social distancing, school closures, and cancellation of public events happened at around the same time.
Even in these cases, we can find relevant comparisons. For instance, European neighbors Austria and Czechia introduced social distancing requirements on the same date, but Czechia also introduced mandatory mask wearing.
Importantly, in every country and every time period where mask usage has been encouraged through laws, or where masks were provided to citizens, case and death rates have fallen.
Some have claimed that making or strongly encouraging people to wear masks will encourage risky behavior Brosseau et al.
Similar arguments have previously been made for HIV prevention strategies Cassell et al. However, real-world research on these topics found that even though some individuals responded with risky behavior, at a population level there was an overall improvement in safety and well-being Peng et al.
Economic analyses consider how much it costs to provide masks with how much value both financial and non-financial might be created — and, potentially, lost — if they are provided.
Such economic studies Abaluck et al. Mask-wearing by the public has been normalized in many Asian countries, partly for individual reasons to protect against pollution and partly for collective ones as a result of recent MERS and SARS epidemics.
My mask protects you; yours protects me. Whilst not every piece of scientific evidence supports mask-wearing, most of it points in the same direction.
Our assessment of this evidence leads us to a clear conclusion: keep your droplets to yourself — wear a mask.
You can make one at home , from a t-shirt, handkerchief, or paper towel, or even just wrap a scarf or bandana around your face.
Ideally, use tightly woven fabric that you can still breathe through. Researchers recommend including a layer of paper towel as a disposable filter; you can simply slide it between two layers of cloth.
There is no evidence that your mask needs to be made with any particular expertise or care to be effective for source control.
You can put a cloth mask in the laundry and reuse it, just like you re-use a t-shirt. This workshop was held in November , which seems like a lifetime ago, yet the themes of tech ethics and responsible government use of technology remain incredibly relevant, particularly as governments are considering controversial new uses of technology for tracking or addressing the pandemic.
And be sure to check out the full playlist of workshop videos here! If you teach the world to fear the other, individualization and hyper surveillance become inevitable.
Detroit is an incredible example of how the power of propaganda became a toolkit for race-blind policies with racist consequences, data and tech misuse, digital surveillance and the dangerous conflation between safety and security.
Watch her talk here:. The related topics of fairness, accountability, and transparency in predictive modeling have seen increased attention over the last several years.
One application area where these topics are particularly important is criminal justice. In this talk, Dr. Lum gives an overview of her work in this area— spanning a critical look at predictive policing algorithms to the role of police discretion in pre-trial risk assessment models to a look behind the scenes at how risk assessment models are created in practice.
Through these examples, she demonstrate the importance of each of these concepts in predictive modeling in general and in the criminal justice system in particular.
Ethical issues are like birds: they are pervasive, varied, and often go unnoticed especially by those not trained to identify them.
Attendees will then work together to apply those lenses to a case study that reflects the complexity of ethical decisions faced by practitioners who work with data.
There are significant challenges to creating informed tech policy, including: the diverse range of stakeholders involved, the way silicon valley incentives are misaligned with reflective policy making, binary modes of thinking, that munipalities are often an afterthought to tech companies, the gap between intended and actual use, and more.
Our panel on local government had a lively and informative discussion. Panelists included:. The smart city has become co-opted by an exclusionary narrative that enables a surveillance state.
Chowdhury presents the global imperative to deconstruct the current surveillance state by illustrating already-existing harms. A work in progress, the goal of digital urban design is to evolve the field of urban design to merge the digital and analog fabrics in a way that impacts and improves the lives of citizens.
Rumman Chowdhury is the the Global Lead for Responsible AI at Accenture Applied Intelligence, where she works with C-suite clients to create cutting-edge technical solutions for ethical, explainable and transparent AI.
Data-driven innovation fueled Silicon Valley and more after the first dotcom bubble. It still has potential to drive incredible outcomes.
Yet the days of deference to companies because of promised innovation and creation of wealth seem to be over.
This talk looks at where we came from and how changes in the law show dissatisfaction with innovation narratives.
And yet, the talk offers that there is a way to use data and software to build trust and success going forward. Watch his talk here:.
A CO2 molecule is 0. Note that a micrometer is a thousand times larger than a nanometer! Larger droplets fall to the ground fairly quickly.
Small particles do not fly straight through materials, but instead follow brownian motion, resulting in them coming in contact with a material even when the material weave is larger than the particle.
Many materials, such as paper towel, have a complex weave which make it very difficult for particles to fully penetrate. A popular meme created by someone that doesn't understand aerosol science Therefore, the only way to really understand the efficacy of a mask is to actually test it in practice.
Source control efficacy There are two main ways to physically test a mask: Have someone wearing it breathe, talk, cough, and so forth, or Synthetically simulate these actions using a spray mechanism, such as a nebulizer.
Fluid dynamics simulation of droplet cloud with vs without mask Another approach to studying source control efficacy tested viral shedding in respiratory droplet samples and aerosol samples.
PPE efficacy Protection of the wearer PPE is much more challenging that source control, since, as discussed, the particles are much smaller although not as small as a free virion.
There are two considerations when looking at efficacy: The filtration of the material The fit of the design.
Conclusion Overall, there is evidence that simple cloth face masks will generally provide good protection to those around the wearer source control.
Razvan Amironesei Razvan Amironesei , PhD, was most recently a visiting scholar in the Department of Philosophy at the University of California, San Diego, where he chairs a multicampus faculty research group on algorithms and politics.
Contents Why should most people wear masks? Is there a randomized controlled trial RCT for the impact of masks on community transmission of respiratory infections in a pandemic?
Do we really know if the virus is transmitted through the air? Is that true? What if people touch their face more and infect themselves in the process?
Where am I going to get a mask anyway? Why should most people wear masks? The reason is that the following steps would be needed: Select or so communities that are representative, and do not have significant population interaction i.
In particular, note the following principles: P-values do not measure the probability that the studied hypothesis is true, or the probability that the data were produced by random chance alone.
Scientific conclusions and business or policy decisions should not be based only on whether a p-value passes a specific threshold.
A p-value, or statistical significance, does not measure the size of an effect or the importance of a result.
Some other RCTs that are frequently discussed with regards to public mask use, none of which study impact on community transmission, include: Cluster randomised controlled trial to examine medical mask use as source control for people with respiratory illness : in this study, the relative risk for laboratory confirmed viral infections was 0.
In other words, the study was too underpowered to tell whether the impact of masks was extremely effective, or extremely ineffective.
The study looked at the impact of continuously wearing a mask whilst in a hospital. This is a very different situation to using a mask for short periods of time whilst shopping, in transit, and so forth.
Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial : This was a Hong Kong study for influenza control in the community.
These findings suggest that nonpharmaceutical interventions are important for mitigation of pandemic and interpandemic influenza.
The study found that cloth masks were not effective as PPE for rhinovirus. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission : The focus of this study was to identify whether the key issue to analyze and control is super-spreader events, or whether other types of transmission could be a problem.
But there's a first time for everything. It's my goal in this article to draw a parallel between over-parenting and the way our leaders are treating us today amid the various crises we face.
Before the parallel can be drawn, let me lay down a definition of the bad parenting I'm thinking of. Helicopter parenting can be defined by those parents who have "a desire to create a perfect world for their kids In fact, the same article goes on to say this:.
The most modern hymn featured in this series thus far was written by some of the most influential Reformed musicians of the day.
I don't know anything about Dave Fournier and I couldn't find much online. In any case, these three men came together to compose one of the best contemporary hymns the church can sing today.
Originally titled, "The Heavenly Vision," this hymn has its roots in a gospel tract from over a hundred years ago.
Lilias Trotter, a missionary to Algeria, supporter of D. Moody's ministry, and friend of Amy Carmichael's, authored a variety of tracts as an aspect of her ministry, often incorporating her art skills in the publishing.
The most influential contemporary hymn-writers became well-known in the Christian world with the release of "In Christ Alone.
Since then, the Gettys have led God's people in singing that song countless times and hundreds of millions of Christians sing it in churches every year.
Keith and Kristyn who were initially introduced by John Lennox , by the way have written many other songs worthy of corporate Lord's Day singing.
I will certainly add nothing novel here.
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Deep learning is transforming the world. We are making deep learning easier to use and getting more people from all backgrounds involved through our:.
The world needs everyone involved with AI , no matter how unlikely your background. Jeremy Howard is an entrepreneur, business strategist, developer, and educator.
Jeremy is a founding researcher at fast. He was the President and Chief Scientist of the data science platform Kaggle , where he was the top ranked participant in international machine learning competitions 2 years running.
The competitions that Howard won involved tourism forecasting  and predicting the success of grant applications. In August , Howard founded Enlitic to use machine learning to make medical diagnostics and clinical decision support tools faster, more accurate, and more accessible.
Enlitic uses Deep Learning algorithms to diagnose illness and disease. Howard used Spaced Repetitive Learning to develop usable Chinese language skills in just one year.
He has contributed to a range of open-source projects as a developer, and was a regular guest expert on Australia's most popular TV morning news program Sunrise.
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Views Read Edit View history.It does not look at or comment on transmission learn more here in any way. One application area where these topics are particularly important is criminal justice. Wu Lien Teh noted that a luer nadya support could provide good fit, although he recommended that a silk covering for the whole head and flannel things, e.t. der auГџerirdische ganzer film think over nose and mouth areaswith holes click to see more the eyes, tucked into the shirt, is a more comfortable approach pokemon download deutsch can provide good protection for a whole day. However, it has been pushed heavily though social media and medical mailing lists. A disease whose R0 is less than 1.
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